Simple, or total mastectomy, includes removal of nearly all of the breast tissue, the nipple and areola, and much of the skin over the breast. The skin is closed leaving a long incision and the chest flat.
This is a simple mastectomy that removes the breast tissue, the nipple and areola, but leaves most of the breast skin in place for immediate reconstruction.
Nipple-sparing (subcutaneous) mastectomy
A nipple sparing mastectomy may be performed in very select patients for treatment or to reduce the chances of developing breast cancer. During a nipple-sparing mastectomy, only the breast tissue is removed while keeping the skin and nipple/areola in place. This operation is performed with immediate reconstruction.
Modified radical mastectomy
A modified radical mastectomy is a combination of a simple mastectomy along with an axillary lymph node
dissection, or the removal of the lymph nodes located in your underarm.
A radical mastectomy includes removal of the breast, chest muscles (pectoralis major and minor), and the majority of the lymph nodes under the arm (an axillary lymph node dissection). This operation is very rarely done and would only be considered if cancer involves the muscles of the chest.