Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that develops in the thin tissue layer, called the mesothelium, which lines and covers many organs. The most common type is pleural mesothelioma, which arises from the outer covering surrounding the lungs.

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In one visit to our multidisciplinary Mesothelioma Cancer Clinic, patients can see specialists from medical oncology, thoracic surgery, and radiation oncology. Through surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, we aim to preserve lung function and quality of life with less invasive surgery and targeted radiation therapy.


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About This Condition

Understanding Mesothelioma

What is malignant mesothelioma?

Cancer is made of changed cells that grow out of control. The changed (abnormal) cells often develop to form a lump or mass called a tumor. Cancer cells can also grow into (invade) nearby areas. And they can spread to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis.

The mesothelium is a tissue that covers and protects the outer surface of some organs. These include the lungs, stomach, and heart. It also lines body cavities, such as the chest and belly (abdomen). It makes fluid that helps the organs slide against each other when you move and breathe.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare kind of cancer that starts in the mesothelium. It’s often called just mesothelioma. It most often starts in the mesothelium that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This cancer is called pleural mesothelioma.

The mesothelium that lines the abdomen is called the peritoneum. If the cancer starts there, it’s called peritoneal mesothelioma.

Unlike many other types of cancer, mesothelioma often doesn’t grow as a tumor. Instead it grows along the thin tissue. Over time, mesothelioma can grow into nearby tissues and organs or spread to other parts of the body.

Who is at risk for malignant mesothelioma?

A risk factor is anything that may increase your chance of having a disease. The exact cause of someone’s cancer may not be known. Risk factors can make it more likely for a person to have cancer. Some risk factors may not be in your control. Others may be things you can change.

The risk factors for mesothelioma include:

  • Exposure to asbestos

  • Radiation exposure

  • Being age 65 or older

  • Male gender

  • Exposure to certain minerals

Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors for mesothelioma and what you can do about them.

Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented?

There’s no sure way to prevent mesothelioma. It’s important to stay away from or limit exposure to asbestos. This is a big concern for people who work in certain industries. These include construction, insulation manufacturing, and textile manufacturing. Follow all safety precautions. You may need to wear protective clothing and a respirator.

Many older homes and other buildings may have materials that contain asbestos. If you think asbestos may be in your home, ask an expert to check your home. Don’t disturb asbestos or try to remove it yourself. If needed, hire a trained asbestos expert to check and remove asbestos in your home.

Are there screening tests for malignant mesothelioma?

There are no regular screening tests for mesothelioma in people at average risk. Screening tests are done to check for disease in people who don’t have symptoms.

If you’ve been exposed to large amounts of asbestos at work, talk with your healthcare provider. Some healthcare providers may advise tests to look for early signs of this cancer. These include CT scans or X-rays.

What are the symptoms of malignant mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma often doesn’t cause symptoms until it’s been there for a long time. Symptoms depend on where the cancer is.

Pleural mesothelioma (in the chest) can cause symptoms such as:

  • Breathing problems such as shortness of breath.

  • Cough.

  • Chest pain.

  • Fever.

  • Trouble swallowing.

  • Losing weight without trying.

  • Feeling tired.

  • Hoarseness.

Peritoneal mesothelioma (in the abdomen) can cause symptoms such as:

  • Pain in your belly.

  • Swelling or fluid in your belly.

  • Losing weight without trying.

  • Nausea or vomiting.

  • Constipation.

  • Fever.

  • Feeling tired.

Many of these may be caused by other health problems. But it’s important to see a healthcare provider if you have these symptoms. Only a healthcare provider can tell if you have cancer.

How is malignant mesothelioma diagnosed?

Mesothelioma is most often diagnosed when you see your doctor because of symptoms you are having. The doctor will ask you about your health history, symptoms, risk factors, and family history of disease. He or she will do a physical exam.

You may also have one or more of these tests:

  • X-rays.

  • CT scan.

  • Biopsy.

After a diagnosis of mesothelioma, you’ll likely need other tests. These help your healthcare providers learn more about your cancer. They can help determine the stage of the cancer. The stage is how much and how far the cancer has spread (metastasized) in your body. It is one of the most important things to know when deciding how to treat the cancer.

Once your cancer is staged, your healthcare provider will talk with you about what the stage means for your treatment. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider to explain the stage of your cancer to you in a way you can understand.

How is malignant mesothelioma treated?

Your treatment choices depend on the type of mesothelioma you have, test results, and the stage of the cancer. The goal of treatment may be to control the cancer or to ease problems caused by the cancer. Talk with your healthcare team about your treatment choices, the goals of treatment, and what the risks and side effects may be.

Types of treatment for cancer are either local or systemic. Local treatments remove, destroy, or control cancer cells in one area. Surgery and radiation are local treatments. Systemic treatment is used to destroy or control cancer cells that may have traveled around your body. When taken by pill or injection, chemotherapy is a systemic treatment. You may have just one treatment or a combination of treatments.

Mesothelioma may be treated with:

  • Surgery.

  • Radiation.

  • Chemotherapy (chemo) and immunotherapy

Talk with your healthcare providers about your treatment options. Make a list of questions. Think about the benefits and possible side effects of each option. Talk about your concerns with your healthcare provider before making a decision.

What are the side effects of treatment?

Cancer treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation can damage normal cells. This can cause side effects such as hair loss, mouth sores, and vomiting.

Talk with your healthcare provider about side effects that you might have and ways to manage them. There may be things you can do and medicines you can take to help prevent or control side effects.


Coping with malignant mesothelioma

Many people feel worried, depressed, and stressed when dealing with cancer. Getting treatment for cancer can be hard on your mind and body. Keep talking with your healthcare team about problems or concerns you have. Work together to ease the effects of cancer and its symptoms on your daily life.

Here are tips:

  • Talk with your family or friends.

  • Ask your healthcare team or social worker for help.

  • Speak with a counselor.

  • Talk with a spiritual advisor, such as a minister or rabbi.

  • Ask your healthcare team about medicines for depression or anxiety.

  • Keep socially active.

  • Join a cancer support group.

Cancer treatment is also hard on the body. To help yourself stay healthier, try to:

  • Eat a healthy diet, with a focus on high-protein foods.

  • Drink plenty of water, fruit juices, and other liquids.

  • Keep physically active.

  • Rest as much as needed.

  • Talk with your healthcare team about ways to manage treatment side effects.

  • Take your medicines as directed by your team.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

Your healthcare provider will talk with you about when to call. You may be told to call if you have any of the below:

  • New symptoms or symptoms that get worse

  • Signs of an infection, such as a fever

  • Side effects of treatment that affect your daily function or don’t get better with treatment

Ask your healthcare provider what signs to watch for, and when to call. Know how to get help after office hours and on weekends and holidays.

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